||[FREE IRAN Project] In The Spirit Of Cyrus The Great
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Joined: 24 Jun 2003
|Posted: Fri Mar 18, 2005 3:25 pm Post subject: PERSIAN TIMELINE DEBATE!
5100 BC The World's oldest wine found at a Neolithic village site in Iran.
3800 BC The first bronze is smelted at Tepe Yahya (Western Iran)
2900 BC First known use of cuneiform script.
2860 BC Gilgamesh is crowned king of Uruk.
2334 BC Sargon conquers Mesopotamia.
2250 BC The development of the composite bow, it is able to penetrate leather
armor and has twice the range of simple bows.
2060 BC The re-unification of Egypt making the beginning of what is now
called the Middle Kingdom. Ur is sacked by the Elamites.
2000 BC Knossos is founded by the Minoans in Crete.
1975 BC The Egyptians conquer Nubia.
1800 BC Aryan migration from Southern Russia to Near East.
1304 BC Ramesses II is crowned the king of Egypt.
1300 BC Hittites first use of iron for weapons.
1285 BC Ramesses defeats the Hittites at the battle of Kadesh.
1220 BC Assyrians capture Babylon.
1160 BC Babylon falls to the Elamites.
1100 BC The Dorians invade and settle in mainland Greece.
1101 BC David is crowned king of Israel.
1000 BC The Chaldeans take and occupy Ur.
928 BC Hebrew kingdom splits into Israel and Judah
900 BC Sparta is founded in Greece.
814 BC The city of Carthage is founded by the Phoenicians
776 BC The first Olympic games are held in Greece.
753 BC Founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.
750 BC Homer (Greek poet) composes the Iliad and the Odyssey.
750 BC Approximate date of the widespread use of iron in Persian region.
733 BC Syracuse is founded by the Greeks in Sicily.
729 BC Babylon is captured by the Assyrians.
721 BC Israel is conquered by king Shalmaneser V of Assyria.
700 BC Biremes are developed with two banks of oars.
Coins used in Lydia (Turkey)
Saddle - without stirrups, developed by Scythians.
671 BC Egypt is conquered by king Esarhaddon of Assyria.
651 BC The Egyptians expel the Assyrians from their country.
650 BC First reference of triremes. -three rows of oars.
646 BC Ashurbanipal, the Assyrian king, sacks Susa and ends Elamite supremacy.
645 BC Psamtik recaptures Thebes from the Assyrians.
640 BC Persia becomes a vassal state of Media.
The kingdom of Macedon is founded.
630 BC The prophet Zoroaster is born.
620 BC Greek colonies are founded in Egypt.
612 BC Nineveh is sacked by the Babylonians and the Medes. The
Assyrian empire collapses.
605 BC The Babylonians under prince Nebuchadnezzar defeat the
Egyptians at the Battle of Carchemish.
604 BC Nebuchadnezzar is crowned king of Babylon.
600 BC The Etruscan league of cities is formed in northern Italy.
597 BC Nebuchadnezzar captures Jerusalem.
585 BC The "Battle of the Eclipse" which ended the inconclusive 15 year war
between the Median and Lydian empires. Calculated as occurring on the
afternoon of May 25, 585 BC.
580 BC The Carthaginians defeat the settling Greeks at Lilybaeum, Sicily.
559 BC Cyrus II(the Great) assumes throne of Ashan (western Persia)
and begins sunjugation of all Persia.
550 BC Cyrus defeats the Median king Astyages at the
battle of Pasargadai and becomes the king of both kingdoms.
547 BC Persians clash with the Lydians at the Battle of Pteria.
546 BC Croesus of Lydia retires to Sardis but the Persians unexpectedly
followup. Croesus hastily reassembles a even larger allied army
and meets Cyrus on the Plain of Thymbra.
The Lydian army is routed and the city falls after a short seige.
Persia now rules Ionia.
The tyrant Peisistratus seizes power at Athens.
545 BC Cyrus now expands eastward. He reconquers most of Parthia, Sogdiana,
Bactria and Arachosia which were attempting to establish their
540 BC Cyrus defeats Bedouin sheikhs around Teima.
Polycrates the tyrant of Samos, allies with Egypt, defies Persia
and builds a fleet of 100 ships.
539 BC Cyrus II of Persia invades and conquers Babylon and Phoenicia.
538 BC Cyrus occupies Jerusalem & allows the Jews of Babylon
to return home if they wish.
533 BC Cyrus crosses the Hindu Kush and receives tribute from
the Indian cities of the Indus valley and establishes
the twentith satrapy of Gandhara.
530 BC Cyrus is killed in a campaign against the Massagatae
of central Asia and so his son Cambyses is crowned king of Persia.
529 BC Cyrus' tomb is erected at Pasargadae the capital city
525 BC Cambyses defeats the Egyptian king Psamtik III
521 BC Cambyses dies or is murdered, and is succeeded by his
brother Smerdis. Smerdis is then overthrown, Darius I
takes the throne.
520 BC Darius begins a campaign against the Scythians.
Darius commissions the completetion of the canal joining
the Nile to the Red Sea began by Necho II 610 BC.
519 BC Darius has the great rock-face of Behistan constructed,
on the Ecbatana - Babylon Road, to give an account of
his early successes. The cuneiform inscritions in 3
langauages lead Sir Henry Rawlinson to decipher
Darius puts down a second revolt in Babylon.
518 BC Darius sends Scylax, a Carian, on a voyage of discovery
into the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea.
517 BC Darius visits Egypt, which he lists as a rebel country,
and puts its satrap, Aryandes to death. He sets priests
and wisemen the task of codification of Egyptian laws.
The task takes 15 years.
515 BC Darius completes the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea began by
the Egyptian King Necho II in 610 BC.
Darius sends Scylax, a Carian, on a voyage of discovery into
the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. He established a sea route
between India and Persia.
513 BC Darius leads a campaign into southeast Europe,
by building a bridge of boats across the Bosporus river.
510 BC The tyranny at Athens comes to an end.
509 BC A democratic constitution is proposed by Kleisthenes, and is
adopted at Athens.
501 BC Megabates with a Persian naval fleet of 200 tiremes attack Naxos
with the support of the Ionians under Aristagoras.
500 BC Darius I completes or expands the Royal Road of Persians.
499 BC The Ionian revolt. The Greek cities of the Ionian coast under
the leadership of Aristagoras, ruler of Miletus, plus the island
of Cyprus, led by Onesilus, - revolt against the Persians.
498 BC Sparta does not respond, but Athens and Eretria support the
Ionians by sending troops & ships to attack Sardis.
The city captured without opposition and burnt, but the Persians
still hold the central stronghold.
496 BC Darius soon recaptures Cyprus with the help of the Phoenician navy.
494 BC A Persian fleet destroys the Greek fleet at the Battle of Lade.
493 BC Ionian revolt ends when Miletos is sacked by Persians.
492 BC Mardonius leads a naval expedition against Greece. Thrace and Macedon
are subjugated but Mardonius is injured in a night attack by the
Thracians. The Persian fleet is destroyed by a storm while trying to
round Mount Athos.
490 BC Persians under the command of Artaphernes and Datis sack Eretria.
Persians are defeated at the Battle of Marathon
by an Athenian army led by Miltiades.
486 BC Egypt revolts from Persian rule.
The death of Darius I, (the Great), he is succeeded by his son Xerxes.
484 BC Xerxes subdues the revolt in Egypt.
483 BC Xerxes resumes preparations for the invasion of Greece.
He orders a canal to be cut through the promontory at Mt Athos.
Begins the construction of two floating pontoon bridges across
482 BC Xerxes reconquers Babylon after the city revolts. Its walls & temples are
razed and the statue of its patron god Marduk is melted down.
481 BC Athens and Sparta found the Hellenic League against
480 BC Start of the second Persian war: Xerxes leads a huge combined land and
invasion against Greece. At the Battle of Thermopylae,
the Persian advance is delayed by the Spartans under King Leonidas I.
The Greek and Persian fleets battle inconclusively for two consecative
days off Cape Artemisium. The Persians march south to capture Athens.
In the Bay of Salamis, Themistocles with an armada of 483 Greek ships;
with "Greek fire" ships ram into the larger Persian vessels,
setting them on fire and winning the battle.
479 BC Xerxes returns to Sardis leaving Mardonius in change of the army.
Mardonius conquers central Greece but is unsuccessful in gaining an
alliance with Athens. He is killed and his army defeated at the
Battle of Plataea.
The Greeks defeat the Persians again at Mycale, destroying the last
of the Persian fleet.
A Greek fleet under Pausanias captures Cyprus, then sails to
the Hellespont to seize Byzantium.
478 BC The Delian League is founded to drive the Persians from previously
Greek holdings in Asia Minor.
A Greek fleet under the command of the Spartan general Pausanias, the
winner of PlatŠa, takes Cyprus, then Byzantium.
475 BC The city of Eion falls. Its Persian garrison were besieged since the
previous year by the Athenians led by Cimon.
466 BC Battle of Eurymedon. The Persians are defeated by Cimon of Athen in a
naval battle off the Eurymedon River in Asia Minor.
465 BC Artaxerxes becomes king of Persia after his father, Xerxes,
Themistocles accused of 'Medising' is given asylum in Persia.
460 BC Athens supports a rebellion that captures Memphis, the capital of Egypt.
The Persian Garrison however holds out for 4 years until an army
arrives from Persia. The Athenians withdraw to an island in the Nile
and held out for two years.
Pericles becomes head of the Athenian State.
Pericles preferred to make peace with Persians and oppose Spartans.
454 BC Artaxerxes I reconquered Egypt.
450 BC Cimon leads 200 ships against Persians in Egypt and Cyprus.
Cimon dies in battle, no further large scale battles between
Delian League and Persians.
448 BC The Greco-Persian War came to end with the "Peace of Callias".
431 BC War begins between Sparta and Athens.
424 BC Death of Artaxerxes. Palace intrigues lead to the successive
assassinations of two of his sons, Xerxes II and Sogdianos.
Eventually a third of his sons takes hold under the name of Darius II.
407 BC Cyrus, younger son of Darius II, king of Persia, is named Satrap of
Asia Minor in replacement of Tissaphernes. Cyrus is instructed to
support Sparta and helps finance Lysander's fleet, eventually
contributing to the victory of Sparta.
404 BC Death of Darius II, king of Persia. He is succeeded by his son
Sparta conclusively defeats Athens, and takes control of the Athenian
401 BC Cyrus is killed by his elder brother Artaxerxes II at the
Battle of Cunaxa near Babylon.
Last mention of gerhon or spara shielded infantry in Persian army.
399 BC Sparta sends forces to Ionia to protect them from Persians.
Trial and death of Socrates.
395 BC Start of Corinthian War. Persians stir up Athens, Argos,
Corinth & Thebes to revolt against Sparta.
394 BC Persian fleet defeats the Spartan fleet off Cnidus and
begin to overthrow Greeks from the Aegean.
390 BC Rome is captured and burned by the Gauls under the leadership of the
387 BC Artaxerxes II mediates between Athens & Sparta, leading
to the "King's Peace".
385 BC Pelopidas leads an uprising in Thebes against the Spartans, supported
382 BC Sparta invades Thebes.
371 BC The Thebans, led by Epaminondas, conclusively defeat the Spartans,
ending their domination of the Aegean altogether.
Thebes becomes the leading Greek state.
369 BC Athens becomes an ally of Sparta against Thebes.
362 BC The Theban general Epaminondas is killed at Battle of Mantinea.
359 BC Phillip II is crowned king of Macedonia.
356 BC Alexander III (the Great) is born in Macedonia, to Phillip II and
359 BC Death of Artaxerxes II, king of Persia at more than 90. After more
palace struggle and assassinations, one of his sons, succeeds him under
the name Artaxerxes III.
343 BC Artaxerxes III reconquers Egypt
338 BC Death of Artaxerxes III, poisoned by the eunuch Bagoas. He is succeeded
by his son Oarses.
Phillip II of Macedonia decisively beats a comnbined force of
Athenians and Thebens at the Battle of Chaironeia.
336 BC Phillip II is assassinated. His son Alexander assumes the throne.
Death of Oarses, poisoned, like his father, by the eunuch Bagoas.
He is succeeded by his cousin, a great-grandson of Darius II,
who becomes king under the name Darius III.
334 BC Alexander crosses into Asia at Gallipoli and defeats a Persian army
at the river Granikos.
333 BC Darius III of Persia is beaten decisively by Alexander at
the Battle of Issus.
332 BC Alexander besieges and then captures both Tyre and Gaza.
Alexander defeats Darius III army at the Battle of Gaugamela.
He goes on to conquer Babylon.
327 BC Alexander captures and burns the Persian capital
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